Things You Need To Know About Organ Donation

Organ Donation

Organ donation and transplantation is a process of removing an organ from one person (the donor) and surgically placing it in another (the recipient) whose organ has failed. Organs that can be donated include the liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart.

What are organ donation and transplantation?

Organ donation is the method of surgically removing an organ from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into another person (the recipient). Transplantation is important because the recipient’s organ has failed or has been damaged by disease or injury. Organ transplantation is one of the great advances in modern medicine. Unfortunately, the need for organ donors is much greater than the number of people who donate.

What organs and tissues can be transplanted?

Organs and tissues that can be transplanted include-

  • Liver.
  • Kidney.
  • Pancreas.
  • Heart.
  • Lung.
  • Intestine.
  • Corneas.
  • Middle ear.
  • Skin.
  • Bone.
  • Bone marrow.
  • Heart valves.
  • Connective tissue.
  • Vascularized composite allografts (transplant of several structures that may include skin, uterus, bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue).

Who is eligible as an organ donor?

People of all ages should consider themselves possible donors. When a person dies, they are evaluated for donor appropriateness based on their medical history and age. The organ donation organization determines medical suitability for donation.Worldwide, organ transplantation has saved and intensified the lives of thousands of recipients over the past five decades. Organ transplantation rates are still lower in developing countries. The cause of this low rate is attributable to many factors including unawareness about the procedure and concerned laws, low education levels, inadequately qualified workforce, low socioeconomic status, and costly immunosuppressive drugs. Now, the government needs to push for affordable transplantation by strengthening the public sector hospitals and by making transplant medications more affordable. Moreover, the transplant community should strive to increase organ donation programme awareness, improve the infrastructure for organ retrieval, storage, and allocation in an equitable way.The lack of enough transplant centers with staff as well as transplant administrators who are adequately trained and well versed with the procedures required to conduct an organ donation programme is acting as a significant roadblock to the deceased organ donation programme.

Even the medical community has very limited knowledge regarding organ donation policies and the concerned national and international laws. This can be avoided by having dedicated chapters on organ donation and relevant policies in the undergraduate study curriculum. Sensitization at an earlier age will increase the understanding of the subject among medical and paramedical students. The chapters should also clearly define the roles and responsibilities of medical and paramedical staff. The entire concept of deceased organ donation is built upon trust in the system of organ donation and allocation. Any negative concept, which breaks this trust, acts as an obstacle to the whole process of organ donation. Organ transplantation in Asia has progressed quickly over time. Many countries have moved beyond kidney transplantation and embarked on Heart, Liver, and other organ transplantations. There have also been greater investments in base and personnel without which no progress could be made. The major hurdle continues to be the lack of organs particularly from cadaveric donors. The basic requirements start from a law in the country, public awareness, infrastructure, trained personnel, and the required funds to implement the deceased donor program. With the easy availability of living donors, particularly for kidney transplantation, some of the Asian countries have become over the prey to unethical practices. For more information visit our official website-cast2021.

Transplant Surgery- Liver Transplant In Malaysia

A liver transplant is an operation that replaces a patient’s diseased liver with a whole or partial healthy liver from another person. This article describes the current indications for liver transplantation in Malaysia, types of donor’s livers, the surgery itself, and the immunosuppression that is required after transplantation.

Liver anatomy and function

The liver is an important organ, meaning that one cannot live without it. The liver serves many critical functions including metabolism of drugs and toxins, removing degradation products of normal body metabolism (for instance clearance of ammonia and bilirubin from the blood), and synthesis of many crucial proteins and enzymes (such as factors necessary for blood to clot).

Blood enters the liver from two channels, the hepatic artery, and the portal vein, bringing nutrients and oxygen to liver cells, also known as hepatocytes, and bile ducts. Blood leaves the liver via the hepatic veins which drain into the inferior vena cava which immediately enters the heart. The liver makes bile, a liquid that helps dissolve fat and eliminate metabolic waste and toxins via the intestine. Each hepatocyte creates bile and excretes it into microscopic channels that join to form bile ducts. Like tributaries joining to form a river, the bile ducts join to form a single “hepatic duct” that brings bile into the intestine.

Who requires a liver transplant?

Liver transplantation surgically replaces a failing or diseased liver with one that is normal and healthy. At this time, transplantation is the only cure for liver insufficiency or liver failure because no device or machine presumably performs all of the functions of the liver. People who require liver transplants typically have one of the following conditions.

Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, happens when a previously healthy liver suffers huge injury resulting in clinical signs and symptoms of liver insufficiency. Any number of things can lead to acute liver failure but the most common causes are acetaminophen overdose, viral infections (known or yet unknown virus), ingestion of a toxin such as poisonous mushrooms, or an idiosyncratic drug reaction.

The sign of this condition is the development of confusion (encephalopathy) within eight weeks after the onset of yellowing of the skin (jaundice). Confusion occurs because toxins typically metabolized by the liver accumulate. Unlike patients with chronic liver disease, who can survive weeks to months to years while awaiting liver transplantation, patients with acute liver failure may die within days if not transplanted. These patients are listed at the highest priority, placing them at the top of local, regional, and national waiting lists for a donor’s liver.

Chronic liver failure

The liver has an exceptional ability to repair itself in response to injury. Nevertheless, repeated injury and repair, typically over many years and even decades, scars the liver permanently. The end-stage of scarring is termed cirrhosis and corresponds to the point where the liver can no longer repair itself. Once a person has cirrhosis, he or she may begin to show signs of inadequate liver function. This is termed “decompensated liver disease.” Although medicines can decrease the symptoms caused by liver failure, liver transplantation represents the only permanent cure.

Organ transplantation in Asia has progressed quickly over time. Many countries have moved beyond kidney transplantation and embarked on Heart, Liver, and other organ transplantations. There have also been greater investments in base and personnel without which no progress could be made. The major hurdle continues to be the lack of organs particularly from cadaveric donors. To implement the deceased donor program, the basic requirements start from a law in the country, public awareness, infrastructure, trained personnel, and the required funds. With the easy availability of living donors, particularly for kidney transplantation, some of the Asian countries have become over the prey to unethical practices. For more information visit our official website- http://www.cast2021.my/.